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ASTM A234/ASME SA234M Standard Specification

ASTM A234 WPB is the Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service.

This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application.

ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service

Abstract …
This specification covers wrought carbon steel and alloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction. These fittings are for use in pressure piping and in pressure vessel fabrication for service at moderate and elevated temperatures. The material for fittings shall consist of killed steel, forgings, bars, plates, seamless or fusion-welded tubular products with filler metal added. Forging or shaping operations may be performed by hammering, pressing, piercing, extruding, upsetting, rolling, bending, fusion welding, machining, or by a combination of two or more of these operations. The forming procedure shall be so applied that it will not produce injurious imperfections in the fittings. Fittings, after forming at an elevated temperature, shall be cooled to a temperature below the critical range under suitable conditions to prevent injurious defects caused by too rapid cooling, but in no case more rapidly than the cooling rate in still air. The fittings shall be subjected to tension test, hardness test, and hydrostatic test.
Referenced Documents
ASTM Standards
  • A216/A216M Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-Temperature Service
  • A217/A217M Specification for Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing Parts, Suitable for
High-Temperature Service
  • A960/A960M Specification for Common Requirements for Wrought Steel Piping Fittings
ASME Standards
  • B16.11 Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded
  • ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
  • SectionIX Welding Qualifications
MSS Standards
  • MSS-SP-95 Swage(d) Nipples and Bull Plugs
Chemical Composition (%) of ASTM A234/A234M fittings
Grade Type Chemical Composition (%)
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5
WPB 0.3 0.1min 0.058 0.05 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.06;Nb:0.02 415-585 240 22 197
WPC 0.35 0.1min 0.058 0.05 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.06;Nb:0.02 485-655 275 22 197
WP1 0.28 0.1-0.5 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.9 0.44-0.65 380-550 205 22 197
WP12 CL1 0.05-0.2 0.6 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.8 0.8-1.25 0.44-0.65 415-585 220 22 197
WP12 CL2 0.05-0.2 0.6 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.8 0.8-1.25 0.44-0.65 485-655 275 22 197
WP11 CL1 0.05-0.15 0.5-1 0.03 0.03 0.3-0.6 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 415-585 205 22 197
WP11 CL2 0.05-0.2 0.5-1 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.8 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 485-655 275 22 197
WP11 CL3 0.05-0.2 0.5-1 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.8 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 520-690 310 22 197
WP22 CL1 0.05-0.15 0.5 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.6 1.9-2.6 0.87-1.13 415-585 205 22 197
WP22 CL3 0.05-0.15 0.5 0.04 0.04 0.3-0.6 1.9-2.6 0.87-1.13 520-690 310 22 197
WP5 CL1 0.15 0.5 0.03 0.04 0.3-0.6 4-6 0.44-0.65 415-585 205 22 217
WP5 CL3 0.15 0.5 0.03 0.04 0.3-0.6 4-6 0.44-0.65 520-690 310 22 217
WP9 CL1 0.15 1 0.03 0.03 0.3-0.6 8-10 0.9-1.1 415-585 205 22 217
WP9 CL3 0.15 1 0.03 0.03 0.3-0.6 8-10 0.9-1.1 520-690 310 22 217
WPR 0.2 0.05 0.045 0.4-1.06 1.6-2.24 435-605 315 22/28 217
WP91 0.08-0.12 0.2-0.5 0.01 0.02 0.3-0.6 8-9.5 0.4 0.85-1.05 See sdandard 585-760 415 20 248
WP911 0.09-0.13 0.1-0.5 0.01 0.02 0.3-0.6 8.5-10.5 0.4 0.9-1.1 See sdandard 620-840 440 20 248
ASTM A403/A403M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5
WP304 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-11 515 205 28
WP304H 0.04-0.1 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-11 515 205 28
WP304L 0.035 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-13 485 170 28
WP304LN 0.03 0.75 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-10.5 N2:0.1-0.16 515 205 28
WP304N 0.08 0.75 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 8-11 N2:0.1-0.16 550 240 28
WP309 0.15 1 0.03 0.045 2 22-24 12-15 515 205 28
WP310 0.15 1.5 0.03 0.045 2 24-26 19-22 515 205 28
WP316 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 16-18 10-14 2-3 515 205 28
WP316H 0.04-0.1 1 0.03 0.045 2 16-18 10-14 2-3 515 205 28
WP316LN 0.03 0.75 0.03 0.045 2 16-18 11-14 2-3 N2:0.1-0.16 515 205 28
WP316L 0.035 1 0.03 0.045 2 16-18 10-16 2-3 485 170 28
WP316N 0.08 0.75 0.03 0.045 2 16-18 11-14 2-3 N2:0.1-0.16 550 240 28
WP317 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 11-15 3-4 515 205 28
WP317L 0.03 1 0.03 0.045 2 18-20 11-15 3-4 515 205 28
WP321 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-20 9-13 Ti:5C-0.7 515 205 28
WP321H 0.04-0.1 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-20 9-13 Ti:4C-0.7 515 205 28
WP347 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-20 9-13 Nb+Ta:10C-1.1 515 205 28
WP347H 0.04-0.1 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-20 9-13 Nb+Ta:8C-1 515 205 28
WP348 0.08 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-20 9-13 Ta:0.1 515 205 28
WP348H 0.04-0.1 1 0.03 0.045 2 17-20 9-13 Ta:0.1 515 205 28

ASTM A420/A420M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
WPL6 0.3 0.15-0.3 0.04 0.035 0.6-1.35 0.3 0.4 0.12 Cb:0.02;V:0.08 415-585 240 22
WPL9 0.2 0.03 0.03 0.4-1.06 1.6-2.24 435-610 315 20
WPL3 0.2 0.13-0.37 0.05 0.05 0.31-0.64 3.2-3.8 450-620 240 22
WPL8 0.13 0.13-0.37 0.03 0.03 0.9 8.4-9.6 690-865 515 16
ASTM A420/A420M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
WPL6 0.3 0.15-0.3 0.04 0.035 0.6-1.35 0.3 0.4 0.12 Cb:0.02;V:0.08 415-585 240 22
WPL9 0.2 0.03 0.03 0.4-1.06 1.6-2.24 435-610 315 20
WPL3 0.2 0.13-0.37 0.05 0.05 0.31-0.64 3.2-3.8 450-620 240 22
WPL8 0.13 0.13-0.37 0.03 0.03 0.9 8.4-9.6 690-865 515 16
ASTM A815/A815M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
UNS S31803 0.03 0.1 0.02 0.03 2 21-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N:0.08-0.2 620-795 450 25 290
ASTM A53/A53M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
B 0.3 0.045 0.05 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.08 415 240 See sdandard
ASTM A106
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
B 0.3 0.1min 0.035 0.035 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.08 415 240 22
C 0.35 0.1min 0.035 0.035 0.29-1.06 0.4 0.4 0.15 V:0.08 485 270 20
ASTM A312/A312M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
TP304 0.08 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 18-20 8-11 515 205 35
TP304H 0.04-0.1 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 18-20 8-11 515 205 35
TP304L 0.035 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 18-20 8-13 485 170 35
TP316L 0.035 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 16-18 10-15 2-3 485 170 35
TP321 0.08 0.75 0.03 0.04 2 17-20 9-13 Ti:5C%-0.7 515 205 35
ASTM A105/A105M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
A105 0.35 0.1-0.35 0.04 0.035 0.6-1.05 0.3 0.4 0.12 V:0.05;Nb:0.02 485 250 22 187 ψ%:30
ASTM A335/A335M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
P5 0.15 0.5 0.025 0.025 0.3-0.6 4-6 0.45-0.65 415 205 22
P5b 0.15 1-2 0.025 0.025 0.3-0.6 4-6 0.45-0.65 415 205 22
P5c 0.12 0.5 0.025 0.025 0.3-0.6 4-6 0.45-0.65 Ti:4C%-0.7 415 205 22
P9 0.15 0.5-1 0.025 0.025 0.3-0.6 8-10 0.9-1.1 415 205 22
P11 0.05-0.15 0.5-1 0.025 0.025 0.3-0.6 1-1.5 0.44-0.65 415 205 22
P12 0.05-0.15 0.5 0.025 0.025 0.3-0.61 0.8-1.25 0.44-0.65 415 220 22
P22 0.05-0.15 0.5 0.025 0.025 0.3-0.6 1.9-2.6 0.87-0.13 415 205 22
P91 0.08-0.12 0.2-0.5 0.01 0.02 0.3-0.6 8-9.5 0.4 0.85-1.05 See sdandard 585 415 20
ASTM A515/A515M
Steel No. Type Chemical composition
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
60 0.24 0.13-0.45 0.035 0.035 0.98 415-550 220 25
65 0.28 0.13-0.45 0.035 0.035 0.98 450-585 240 23
70 0.31 0.13-0.45 0.035 0.035 1.3 485-620 260 21
Notes:
  1. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified C maximum, an increase of 0.06% Mn above the specified maximum will be permitted, up to a maximum of 1.35%.
  2. The sum of Cu, Ni, Cr, and Mo shall not exceed 1.00%.
  3. The sum of Cr and Mo shall not exceed 0.32%.
  4. The maximum carbon equivalent (C.E.) shall be 0.50, based on heat analysis and the formula C.E.=C+Mn/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15.
Mechanical properties of ASTM A234
Tensile Requirements WPB WPC, WP11CL2 WP11CL1  WP11CL3
Tensile Strength, min, ksi[MPa] 60-85 70-95 60-85  75-100
(0.2% offset or 0.5% extension-under-load) [415-585] [485-655] [415-585]  [520-690]
Yield Strength, min, ksi[MPa] 32 40 30 45
[240] [275] [205] [310]
What is the manufacturing process of ASTM A234 WPB pipe fittings?
The WPB is not short hand for any process. It is simply an identifier developed by ASTM. The fittings in question are manufactured in the same manner as the companion pipe for this specification.

In very large sizes, the fittings may be manufactured in pieces and welded together as is the case for many large fittings.

The term used for the manufacturing is called “wrought” which means it is worked as opposed to being cast or forged.

As to the W standing for weldable, I’m not sure that is correct since that are many, many pipe fittings that are weldable but carry designations other than a W. Note the reference below.

Forging is the manufacturing process of ASTM A234 WPB pipe fittings.

Latest standard is:
ASTM A234/A234M-07
Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
This standard covers wrought carbon steel fittings of seamless and welded construction which are manufactured to the dimensional specifications of ASME B16.9 and B16.28. These fittings are primarily for use in pressure piping and in pressure vessel fabrication for service at moderate and elevated temperatures.
Index Terms
pipe fittings—steel; piping applications; pressure containing parts; pressure vessel service; temperature service applications—elevated; ICS Number Code 23.040.40 (Metal fittings)
Seamless Fittings – 1/2” to 24” Welded Fittings – 1/2” to 60”
Elbow LR & SR Bend, Crosses, Stub-End, Tee, Reducer, Flange, End Cap
Long Radius Bends, Long Radius Piggable Bends, Induction Pipe Bending Bends
Long Radius Carbon Steel Bends, Long Radius High Yield Carbon Steel Bends
Long Radius Bends R-2D, R-3D, R-5D, R-6D, R-8D upto 22D
Long Radius Piggable Bends R-2D, R-3D, R-5D, R-6D, R-8D upto 22D
Hot Induction Long Radius Bends R-2D, R-3D, R-5D, R-6D, R-8D upto 22D
API-5L Hot Induction Long Radius Bends R-2D, R-3D, R-5D, R-6D, R-8D upto 22D
Induction Pipe Bending Bends 2D, 3D, 5D, 6D, 8D upto 22D
Induction Long Radius Pipe Bending Bends API 5L X42, X46, X52, X56, X60, X65, X70
Induction Long Radius Pipe Bending Bends API5LX-42, X-46, X-52, X-56, X-60, X-65, X-70
Long Radius Bends 30 Deg., 45 Deg., 60 Deg., 90 Deg., 180 Deg., 360 Deg. upto 60" Diameter
Long Radius Bends in API 5L X42, API 5L X46, API 5L X52, API 5L X56, API 5L Grade B
Long Radius Bends in API 5L X60, API 5L X65, API 5L X70, API 5L Grade-B
Long Radius Bends in API 5L X-42, API 5L X-46, API 5L X-52, API 5L X-56, API 5L Grade B
Long Radius Bends in API 5L X-60, API 5L X-65, API 5L X-70, API 5L Grade-B
SA-234 WPB, WPC, WP1, WP5, WP7, WP9, WP11CL7, WP12CL1, WP22, WP91
ASTM A-860 WPHY-42, WPHY-46, WPHY-52, WPHY-56, WPHY-60, WPHY-65, WPHY-70
ASTM A-860 WPHY42, WPHY46, WPHY52, WPHY56, WPHY60, WPHY65, WPHY70
MSS SP75 WPHY 42, WPHY 46, WPHY 52, WPHY 56, WPHY 60, WPHY 65, WPHY 70
MSS SP75 WPHY42, WPHY46, WPHY52, WPHY56, WPHY60, WPHY65, WPHY70
MSS-SP-75 WPHY42, WPHY46, WPHY52, WPHY56, WHPY60, WHPY65, WPHY70
MSS-SP-75 WPHY 42, WPHY 46, WPHY 52, WPHY 56, WHPY 60, WHPY 65, WPHY 70
MSS-SP-75 WPHY-42, WPHY-46, WPHY-52, WPHY-56, WHPY-60, WHPY-65, WPHY-70
MSS SP75 WPHY42, WPHY46, WPHY52, WPHY56, WHPY60, WHPY65, WPHY70
MSS SP75 WPHY 42, WPHY 46, WPHY 52, WPHY 56, WHPY 60, WHPY 65, WPHY 70
MSSSP75 WPHY-42, WPHY-46, WPHY-52, WPHY-56, WHPY-60, WHPY-65, WPHY-70
ASTM A-234 WPB, ASTM A234 WPC, ASTM A234 WPB Seamless, ASTM A234 WPC Seamless
ASTM A-234 WP1, WP11 CL1, WP11 CL3, WP12 CL1, WP22 CL1, WP22 CL3
ASTM A-234 WP5 CL1, WP5 CL3, WP9 CL1, WP9 CL3, WP91
ASTM A-403 WP304, 304L, 304H, 310S, 316, 316L, 316H, 321, 321H, 347, 347H, 317, 317L
ASTM A-420 WPL3, WPL6, WPL8, WPL9
ASTM A-182 F304, F304L, F304H, F310S, F316, F316L, F316H, F321, F321H, F347, F347H, F348
ASTM A-182 F1, F11, F12, F22, F5, F9, F91, F92
ASTM A-182 F-1, F-11, F-12, F-22, F-5, F-9, F-91, F-92
ASTM A-694 F-42, ASTM A694 F-46, ASTM A694 F-52, ASTM A694 F-56
ASTM A-694 F-60, ASTM A694 F-65, ASTM A694 F-70, ASTM A694 F-80
SAE / AISI Grade 1008, 1010, 1018, 1020, 1025, 1026, 1040, 1045, 1050, 4130, 4140, 4150, 4340
AISI-4130 L-80 according to API-5CT, 75KSI according to API-6A Quenched / Hardened & Tempered
SAE-4130 L-80 according to API-5CT, 75KSI according to API-6A Quenched / Hardened & Tempered
AISI-4140 L-80, P-110 according to API-5CT, API6A, NACE MR-01-75 Quenched / Hardened & Tempered
SAE-4140 L-80, P-110 according to API-5CT, API6A, NACE MR-01-75 Quenched / Hardened & Tempered
Duplex 2205, Duplex SAF 2205, Duplex SAF2205, Duplex UNS S31803, Din 1.4462 EN 10088 F51
Duplex SAF2205 SANMAC, URANUS 45N, PREN=33, PREN=34, PREN=35, PREN=36 DIN 1.4462
Duplex-2205 UNS S31803 / UNS S32205 DIN-1.4462 EN 10088-3 PREN = 33, PREN = 34, PREN = 35
Super Duplex 2507, Super Duplex SAF 2507, Super Duplex SAF-2507, Super Duplex UNS S32750 F53
Super Duplex SAF 2507 UNS S32750 DIN 1.4410 EN-10088 URANUS 47N(+) PREN=41 Minimum
Super Duplex UNS S32760 F-55 ASTM A182 F55 SA182 F-55 DIN 1.4501 UNS 32760 F55

ASTM A-234 WPB, WPC
ASME A-234 WPB, WPC
CARBON STEEL ELBOWS LR, SR, BENDS, CROSSES, STUB ENDS, EQUAL TEES, UN-EQUAL TEES, CONCENTRIC REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS, CAPS.

MSS-SP 75 WPHY 42, WPHY 46, WPHY 52, WHPY 60, WPHY 65, WPHY 70
HIGH YIELD CARBON STEEL ELBOWS LR, SR, BENDS, CROSSES, STUB ENDS, EQUAL TEES, UN-EQUAL TEES, CONCENTRIC REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS, CAPS.

ASME A-420 WPL6, WPL3
LOW TEMPERATURE CARBON STEEL ELBOWS LR, SR, BENDS, CROSSES, STUB ENDS, EQUAL TEES, UN-EQUAL TEES, CONCENTRIC REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS, CAPS.

ASME A-234 WP5, WP9, WP11, WP12, WP22, WP91
CHROME-MOLY ELBOWS LR, SR, BENDS, CROSSES, STUB ENDS, EQUAL TEES, UN-EQUAL TEES, CONCENTRIC REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS, CAPS.

ASTM A-403 WP304, WP304L, WP304H, WP321, WP321H, WP316, WP316L, WP316H, WP347, WP347H, WP309, WP309S, WP310, WP310S STAINLESS STEEL ELBOWS LR, SR, BENDS, CROSSES, STUB ENDS, EQUAL TEES, UN-EQUAL TEES, CONCENTRIC REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS, CAPS.

ANSI B16.9
ANSI B16.28
MSS-SP 75
MSS-SP 43
DIN 2605, 2625, 2626, 2617
BS 1640

ASTM A-105
ASTM A181 GR.I, GR.II
CARBON STEEL SLIPON FLANGES, BLIND FLANGES, WELD NECK FLANGES, THREADED & SOCKET WELD FLANGES, LAP JOINT FLANGES

ASTM A-182 F304, F304L, F316, F316L, F321, F321H, F347, F347H, F309S, F310S STAINLESS STEEL SLIPON FLANGES, BLIND FLANGES, WELD NECK FLANGES, THREADED & SOCKET WELD FLANGES, LAP JOINT FLANGES

ASTM A-182 F5, F9, F11, F12, F22, F91
CHROME-MOLY ALLOY STEEL SLIPON FLANGES, BLIND FLANGES, WELD NECK FLANGES, THREADED & SOCKET WELD FLANGES, LAP JOINT FLANGES

ANSI B16.5
MSS-SP 44
API 605
AWWA 207
BS TABLE D, E, F, H, J, K
ASA 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, 2500 lbs
DIN ND 6, 10, 16, 25, 40
Certificate & Inspection :
c/w Calibration Works Certificate EN10204 3.1/DIN 50049 3.1/ISO10474 3.1 Mill Test Report, NACE MR-01-03/NACE MR-01-75/ISO-15156, CE Marked, European Pressure Equipment Directive PED 97/23/EC, AD 2000-WO, ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section-II Part-A Edition 2008, API 6A, with 3.2 certificate duly certified & approved by LRS-Lloyd's Register, GL-Germanischer Lloyd, BV-Bureau Veritas, DNV-Det Norske Veritas, ABS-American Bureau of Shipping, SGS, TUV, RINA, IRS, NORSOK APPROVED STANDARD M630, M650 Rev.3



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