Penstock Pipes for hydro power

Penstock pipe from the reservoir, forebay or surge chamber to the turbine pipes conveying water, typically pressurized state.

Its characteristics are concentrated most or all of the head station, another steep slope, the water pressure, but also to withstand the impact of hydrodynamic pressure (water hammer pressure), and close to the plant, once the damage is a serious threat to plant safety. So the penstock pipe is of special importance, its materials, design methods and processing techniques have special requirements.

The penstock is simply a long pipe that fills with water. The weight of the water in the pipe provides the required pressure at the nozzle to drive the turbine. This pipe may run directly from the water source to the turbine or from the end of a canal that brings the water closer, saving on the cost of a longer pipe. A filter is connected at the intake end. At the turbine, there is a valve used for turning the water flow on and off. After the valve is the nozzle which concentrates the water into a high-pressure jet.

Penstock Pipes are in use
Penstock Pipes are in use

For hydro power, the penstock pipe is usually made from plastic. HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) is used in many countries. It is particularly suitable because it is both flexible and weather resistant. This type of pipe is usually coloured black. The penstock is often the most expensive component of a hydro power. It is therefore important that the pipe used is carefully chosen.

The penstock is designed to convey water under pressure in a safe and efficient manner to the turbine. The higher the pressure, the thicker the pipe walls must be and the more expensive it becomes. The pressure of the water in the penstock depends on the head. If pipe with a pressure rating which is too low is used, then there is risk of a burst. If the pressure rating is too high then money has been wasted. The ideal penstock will be low pressure at the intake and thicker at the nozzle where the pressure is greatest.

The Penstock is an integral component of Hydro Electric Power Generation Projects and have a Vital Role for smooth operation of the Turbines with controlled Turbulence under the surge of water in the system to maintain a constant Pressure. In general, Micro Hydro Power generation Projects in the Hill Terrains are based on high Head of water where quality Penstocks are essentially required to withstand a Pressure of 5 Mpa (51Kg/Cm2) or even more. It may not possible to achieve the desired standards of quality other than in a well established factory.

More About Penstock Pipe Uses and Applications

Penstock pipe is typically used to carry water from one source to another. This is most often used in hydropower and micro-hydropower applications. The pipe length can range from a few feet to several hundred feet depending on the application. The most common materials used for penstock pipe include:

When comparing each of these materials you should factor in things like cost, availability, physical friction, strength, durability, and chemistry properties of the pipe as well as the joining methods that can be used.

Seamless pipe Specification, standard and identification

Seamless pipes are extensively applied for the nuclear device, gas, petrochemical, ship building and boiler industries. Seamless pipes dominates 65% of market share in Chinese boiler industry.