Today most industrial plants especially in the oil and gas, offshore, sea water desalination, power generation industries work in very critical operating conditions and require more and more the use of special alloys resistant to corrosion and high temperatures.

How to distinguish pipe material

Steel is steel carbon content between 0.04% -2.3% of the iron-carbon alloys. In order to ensure its toughness and ductility, the carbon content of not more than 1.7%. The main elements of the steel in addition to iron, carbon, there are silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus.

Our highly-skilled manpower is dedicated to producing the finest quality steel pipe, pipe fittings, meeting a wide variety of material specifications. Their knowledge and experience of metal properties, welding procedures and quality control have set the pace and standard expected by our customers world-wide.

The primary raw material in pipe production is steel. Steel is made up of primarily iron. Other metals that may be present in the alloy include aluminum, manganese, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Some finishing materials are sometimes used during production. For example, paint may be used if the pipe is coated. Typically, a light amount of oil is applied to steel pipes at the end of the production line. This helps protect the pipe. While it is not actually a part of the finished product, sulfuric acid is used in one manufacturing step to clean the pipe.

Steel can be categorized into four basic groups based on the chemical compositions:

Carbon steel seamless pipes
Carbon steel

Carbon steel is formed when two elements, iron and carbon, is combined with carbon being used as the alloying element.

Stainless steel

Stainless steelis more expensive than carbon and alloy steel and only accounts for a small number of steel used in the global...

Alloy steel

Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.

What Is Abrasion Resistant Steel

Some abrasion is intentional, such as sanding, grinding, and blasting. However, unintentional abrasion can lead to component failure so it is important to use the proper materials to ensure that surface wear does not lead to unanticipated breakdown of structures or parts. While steel in general has excellent resistance to abrasion, not all steels are equal.

How Does It Work?

The chemical composition of abrasion resistant steel is one of the attributes that make it more immune to wear than other types of steel. There are several alloys that can be used increase the abrasion resistance. Carbon helps block dislocations, which increases the hardness and strength of a steel. The added carbon also allows the steel to form microstructures with increased hardness when heated and quenched. There are other elements that can be added to abrasion resistant steel to increase its hardness value too. Chromium and manganese are also added to abrasion resistant steels to help reduce the negative effects caused by wear.

Heat treatment is another factor that helps the steel resist abrasion. Abrasion resistant steel must have a microstructure that allows it to have a high hardness. This is accomplished, in part, by adding the proper alloying elements. However, this alone is not enough to ensure the proper microstructure is formed. The steel must also undergo a heating and a rapid quenching process to form microstructures such as martensite and bainite which gives the steel the required high hardness values. Care must be taken when welding or heating abrasion resistant steels. If they are heated to a high enough temperature, it may have an annealing effect on the steel, causing it to lose some of its hardness and, therefore, its abrasion resistance.

What Types of Abrasion resistant pipes Are Available?

There are several different abrasion resistant steel grades. Each grade is typically made to a specific Brinell hardness value, as opposed to other steels that are made with tensile strength and toughness in mind. This is because hardness is one of the most important factors when trying to increase abrasion resistance.

What is SHS?

Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) is used to describe a process in which the initial reagents (usually powders), when ignited, spontaneously transform into products due to the exothermitic heat of reaction.

A well-known example of SHS reaction is the thermite reaction given below:

Fe2O3 + Al → 2Fe + Al2O3

This reaction generates temperatures above the melting point of alumina and is used in the thermit welding process for joining railway lines.

Several other terminologies - such as combustion synthesis, gasless combustion or self-propagating exothermic reaction - are used to describe the process.

The types of material that can be formed using this process include metal borides, silicides, carbides, nitrides, sulphides, aluminides and oxides.

Chemical Composition of Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements. Some elements are intentionally added to iron for the purpose of attaining certain specific properties and characteristics. Other elements are present incidentally and cannot be easily removed. Such elements are referred to as “trace” or “residual” elements.

PMI test

PMI (Positive Material Identification) testing is the analysis of materials to determine the chemical composition of a metal or alloy at particular (usually multiple) steps of alloy manufacturing or in-process alloy installation.

PMI tes result
PMI test result

Many product specifications have mandatory requirements for reporting certain elements and these vary. Most mills routinely provide heat analysis which includes the elements below. Although it is possible to analyze for other elements this is most often not practical or necessary unless they are additions (e.g. Pb – Lead, Sb – Antimony, or Co - Cobalt).

Carbon is the principal hardening element in steel. Hardness and strength increase proportionally as the Carbon content increases up to about 0.85%. Carbon has a negative effect on ductility, weldability, and toughness. The carbon range in ULC Steel is usually 0.002 – 0.007%. The minimum level of Carbon in Plain Carbon Steel and HSLA is 0.02%. Plain Carbon Steel grades go up to 0.95%, HSLA Steels to 0.13%.

Manganese is present in all commercial steel as an addition and contributes significantly to steel’s strength and hardness in many the same manner but to a lesser degree than carbon. Manganese improves cold temperature impact toughness. Increasing the Manganese content decreases ductility and weldability. The typical Manganese content is 0.20 – 2.00%.

Phosphorus is most often a residual but it can be an addition. As an addition, it increases hardness and tensile strength. It is detrimental to ductility, weldability, and toughness. Phosphorus is also used in re-phosphorized high-strength steel for automotive body panels. Typical amounts as a residual are less than 0.020%.

Sulphur is present in raw materials used in iron making. The steelmaking process is designed to remove it as it is almost always a detrimental impurity. A typical amount in commercial steel is 0.012%, and 0.005% in formable HSLA.

Silicon can be an addition or a residual. In addition, it has the effect of increasing strength but to a lesser extent than Manganese. A typical minimum addition is 0.10%. For post galvanizing applications the desired residual maximum is 0.04%.

Copper, Nickel, Chromium (Chrome), Molybdenum (Moly), and Tin are the most commonly found residuals in steel. The amount in which they are present is controlled by scrap management in the steelmaking process. Typically the specified maximum residual quantities are 0.20%, 0.20%, 0.15%, and 0.06% respectively for Copper Nickel, Chromium, and Molybdenum but the acceptable limits depend mainly on product requirements. Copper, Nickel, Chromium, and Molybdenum, when they are additions, have very specific enhancing effects on steel. A Tin residual maximum is not usually specified but its content in steel is normally kept to 0.03% or less due to its detrimental characteristics.

Vanadium, Columbium, and Titanium are strengthening elements that are added to steel singly or in combination. In very small quantities they can have a very significant effect hence they are termed micro-alloys. Typical amounts are 0.01 to 0.10%. In Ultra-Low Carbon Steel Titanium and Columbium are added as “stabilizing” agents (meaning that they combine with the Carbon and Nitrogen remaining in the liquid steel after vacuum degassing). The end result is superior formability and surface quality.

Aluminum is used primarily as a deoxidizing agent in steelmaking, combining with oxygen in the steel to form aluminum oxides which can float out in the slag. Typically 0.01% is considered the minimum required for “Aluminum killed steel”. Aluminum acts as a grain refiner during hot rolling by combining with Nitrogen to produce aluminum-nitride precipitates. In downstream processing aluminum-nitride, precipitates can be controlled to affect coil properties.

Nitrogen can enter steel as an impurity or as an intentional addition. Typically the residual levels are below 0.0100 (100 ppm).

Boron is most commonly added to steel to increase its hardenability but in low carbon steels, it can be added to tie up Nitrogen and help reduce the Yield Point Elongation thus minimizing coil breaks. At the same time, when processed appropriately, the product will have excellent formability. For this purpose, it is added in amounts up to approximately 0.009%. As a residual in steel, it is usually less than 0.0005%.

Calcium is added to steel for sulfide shape control in order to enhance formability (it combines with Sulphur to form round inclusions). It is commonly used in HSLA steels especially at higher strength levels. A typical addition is 0.003%.

How different alloys change steel's properties?

Architects and manufacturers have used steel for hundreds of years because of its strength and durability. And until recently, any steel would work for these creators’ needs. Their steel didn’t have to withstand the high temperatures and pressures that steel endures today. These modern demands make steel alloys necessary in nearly all industries and applications.

Steel alloys have different properties than steel alone. They still have steel’s strength and durability, but in some cases they multiply it, and other some cases they add new properties altogether. You can find a more thorough breakdown of different alloys’ properties below.

1. Steel-Aluminum Alloys

Aluminum deoxidizes and degasifies steel, which controls the steel’s grain size and makes it finer. When used in conjunction with nitrogen, aluminum can turn steel into a uniformly hard casing. Aluminum helps steel form more slowly, which means you can make aluminum-steel alloys into more intricate parts. It also makes steel lighter.

2. Steel-Carbon Alloys

Carbon raises steel’s tensile strength, making it harder, less ductile, tougher, and more resistant to wear and tear. Depending on how much carbon the manufacturer adds, the steel could have varying degrees of strength and hardness.

3. Steel-Chromium Alloys

Chromium, also called chrome, represents the second primary ingredient in stainless steel. When you add chromium to steel, it boosts steel’s performance in several ways. On the one hand, it makes it harder and tougher. It also makes the steel’s grain finer and makes it resistant to scratching, staining, rusting, and denting. It also hold steel’s shape at higher temperatures and gives it a distinctive silvery gloss.

4. Steel-Cobalt Alloys

You probably know that metal tends to become more malleable at higher temperatures. This can prove disastrous or even dangerous in certain circumstances, like manufacturing. Luckily, manufacturers can turn to steel-cobalt alloys for a safe solution. Cobalt reinforces steel’s strength, and it maintains that strength at high temperatures. This makes it ideal for use in cutting tools.

When combined with nickel and aluminum, steel-cobalt alloys also create powerful alnico magnets.

5. Steel-Copper Alloys

You don’t usually find steel alloys with copper deliberately added, but when manufacturers do add it, it creates precipitation hardening properties.

6. Steel-Lead Alloys

Lead improves steel’s machining characteristics. It reduces friction where working edges contact each other, and it improves chip breaking formations.

7. Steel-Manganese Alloys

If you want particularly powerful steel, you opt for steel-manganese alloys. By itself, manganese has brittle, but extremely strong properties. It cools slowly, and once it cools, it proves quite difficult to cut.

Wear also makes the surface even harder. So if you need to cast ore crushers or railways crossings, opt for manganese steel.

8. Steel-Molybdenum Alloys

Molybdenum, like manganese, cobalt, and chromium, also improves steel’s strength. It adds hardness, and it enables steel to withstand higher temperatures and more forceful shocks. It also gives steel the added benefit of creep resistance. You’ll often find this alloy in automobile parts and high grade machinery.

When used in conjunction with other alloy materials, it intensifies their effects.

9. Steel-Nickel Alloys

Nickel functions similarly to manganese when alloyed with steel. It increases the material’s strength and hardness, but doesn’t make it less ductile. Nickel helps steel resist rust, and it gives steel more elasticity. This means that when forces hit it, it can bounce back into its original shape. When used with chromium, it allows stainless steel to resist corroding at high temperatures.

10. Steel-Nitrogen Alloys

Nitrogen boosts steel’s stability and yield strength. This makes the alloy less breakable as a whole.

11. Steel-Phosphorus Alloys

By itself, phosphorous simply improves steel’s strength and resistance to corrosion. However, it can also make steel more susceptible to cracking, so manufacturers typically use it in conjunction with manganese and sulfur. We’ll sulfur’s strengths more below.

12. Steel-Silicon Alloys

Like aluminum, silicon deoxidizes steel, which makes it stronger overall. It also increases steel’s magnetic permeability.

13. Steel-Sulfur Alloys

When you pair steel and sulfur, the resulting material has little weldability and ductility. It also has less impact toughness, so it’ll crack with sufficient force. It does have improved machinability though, and when you use it with manganese, it loses all of its disadvantages.

14. Steel-Titanium Alloys

Titanium has a reputation as a tough metal by itself. When you combine it with steel, another tough metal, you create something even stronger. Manufacturers usually inject carbon into the reaction when they create titanium steel, and the resulting metal has incredible strength and corrosion resistance.

15. Steel-Tungsten Alloys

Like chromium and cobalt, tungsten maintains steel’s strength at high temperatures. It also improves the material’s strength overall. The material not only stays hard, but it isn’t brittle either. Its toughness prevents it from breaking after enduring powerful forces.

16. Steel-Vanadium Alloys

Vanadium by itself has brittle properties, but when you combine it with steel, the resulting material doesn’t have this weakness. You end up with a fine-grained steel that can resist great shocks, so you’ll often find it in vehicle springs, gears, and other parts that vibrate constantly.

Now that you know a little more about steel alloys, you know what alloyed elements to look for the next time you need steel in an application. Call your local manufacturer to get the steel alloy you need for your next project.


Some known facts about stainless steel

Stainless steel has been around for a long time. Numerous industries have used stainless steel to construct skyscrapers, memorials, and even kitchen utensils since the 1990s.

You’re probably surrounded by stainless steel objects, such as saucepans, handrails, pen springs, or watches. And you probably use stainless steel every day at work if you use shipping containers, exhaust systems, cable trays, or process piping.

But have you ever stopped to think about what makes stainless steel so unique? Here are some little-known facts about stainless steel—it may surprise you just how versatile stainless steel can be.

1. Some Stainless Steel Can Be Magnetic

Stainless steel is a non-magnetic material, in most cases. However, this is not true for all types of stainless steel. Stainless steel’s magnetic properties depend on its microstructure.

Stainless steel can be divided into five groups:

  • Austenitic
  • Martensitic
  • Ferritic
  • Duplex
  • Precipitation Hardening

Each type features a different combination of metal alloys. For example, austenitic stainless steel has a combination of 18% chromium and 10% nickel. This combination makes austenitic stainless steel non-magnetic.

Martensitic stainless steels contain 12-15% chromium, as well as 0.2-1% molybdenum. Martensitic stainless steel also contains no nickel, and 0.1-1% carbon. This particular combination is ferromagnetic. Its magnetic properties depend on the strength of the applied magnetizing field. Martensitic stainless steel will exhibit permanent magnetic properties if it becomes magnetized during its hardening process.

Ferritic stainless steels contain between 10.5% and 27% chromium and little to no nickel. Like martensitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel is ferromagnetic. However, ferritic stainless steel’s magnetic behavior isn’t as strong as martensitic stainless steel’s.

2. Stainless Steel Can Stain

Stainless steel comes from a family of materials that resist corrosion and oxidation. This gives it the ability to resist rust and unsightly blotches. When exposed to oxygen and moisture, stainless steel produces a thin oxide film that coats the metal. It essentially repairs itself.

Yet despite its name and resistant nature, stainless isn’t impossible to stain. The protective film will break down over time, leading to pitting and corrosion.

To maintain stainless steel, you must regularly clean its surface and ensure the steel has an adequate supply of oxygen.

3. Stainless Steel Is Recyclable

Steel is one of the most recycled materials on the planet. According to the American Iron and Steel Institute, approximately 88% of the world’s steel is recycled. Further, two out of three tons of new steel come from old steel.

The steel industry also recycles steel byproducts, including mill scale, steelmaking slags, and processing liquids. Steelmaking dust and sludge can also be recovered and reused to make other metals, like zinc.

4. Stainless Steel Can Be Made into “Soap”

Many reputable manufacturers produce stainless steel soap, which is essentially a piece of stainless steel in the shape of a soap bar.

While stainless steel soap does not kill germs or other bacteria like regular soap would, stainless steel soap can neutralize strong odors on the hands. Simply rub the bar on your hands after handling garlic, onion, or fish. The smell should disappear.

Why does stainless steel have this unique property? Some researchers hypothesize that the stainless steel binds to sulfur compounds in various substances, which reduces odors.

5. Stainless Steel Expands and Contracts

Stainless steel is valuable in the nuclear power and aerospace industries because it has a high temperature oxidation resistance. While it has a much higher resistance than many other metals, stainless steel still expands and contracts when the temperature varies.

Because of this, construction industries have to account for thermal expansion when creating a steel frame for a building. The Eiffel Tower, for example, is approximately 984 feet tall (not including the antenna) during the summer. But on cold days, the metal tower is approximately 6 inches shorter.

6. Stainless Steel Can Be Woven and Worn

Stainless steel is incredibly ductile, which means it can be drawn out into a thin wire without losing its toughness. Many stainless steel manufacturers produce stainless steel mesh that is fine enough and pliable enough to wear.

Stainless steel clothing is thermal and radiation resistant, so it is often used in the electrical and textiles industries.

Stainless steel thread is a key component in the tech industry and is often used in touchscreen gloves. Capacitive touchscreens can detect the presence of an electrically conductive object (such as a finger). Stainless steel gloves conduct electricity in a way that mimics a finger’s electrical current.

Additionally, some manufacturers weave stainless steel fibers into carpet. The stainless steel prevents the buildup of static electricity, reducing the likelihood of static electric shock.
Because stainless steel’s unique properties have applications in a variety of situations, this metal alloy has the ability to make your life easier. Take the time to appreciate what stainless steel can do for you, and be sure to ask a stainless steel distributor for additional information.


Comparison table of metal materials from different countries

Carbon steel
USA Germany CHINA Japan Great Britain France Italy Spain Sweden
A570.36/1015 1.0038/1.0401/1.1141 RSt.37-2/C15/Ck15 15 STKM12A/STKM12C/S15C 4360 40 C/080M15 -/32C E24-2Ne/CC12/XC12 -/C15,C16/C16 -/F.111/C15K 1311/1350/1370
1020 1.0402 C22 20 - 050A20 2C CC20 C20,C21 F.112 1450
1215 1.0736 9SMn36 Y13 - 240M07 1B S300 CF9SMn36 12SMn35 -
1213 1.0715 9SMn28 Y15 SUM22 230M07 1A S250 CF9SMn8 F.2111/11SMn28 1912
1025 1.1158 Ck25 25 S25C - - - - - -
1035 1.0501 C35 35 - 060A35 - CC35 C35 F.113 1550
1045 1.0503 C45 45 - 080M46 - CC45 C45 F.114 1650
1039 1.1157 40Mn4 40Mn - 150M36 51 35M5 - - -
1335 1.1167 36Mn5 35Mn2 SMn438(H) - - 40M5 - 36Mn5 2120
1330 1.117 28Mn6 30Mn SCMn1 150M28 14A 20M5 C28Mn - -
1035 1.1183 Cf35 35Mn S35C 060A35 - XC38TS C36 - 1572
1045 1.1191 Ck45 Ck45 S45C 080M46 - XC42 C45 C45K 1672
1050 1.1213 Cf53 50 S50C 060A52 - XC48TS C53 - 1674
1055 1.0535/1.1203 C55/Ck55 55 -/S55C 070M55 9/- -/XC55 C55/C50 /-C55K 1655/-
1060 1.0601 C60 60 - 080A62 43D CC55 C60 - -
1060 1.1221 Ck60 60Mn S58C 080A62 43D XC60 C60 - 1678
Gray cast iron
USA Germany CHINA Japan Great Britain France Italy Spain Sweden
No 25 B 0.6015 GG15 HT150 FC150 Grade150 - Ft15 D G15 FG15 115
No 30 B 0.602 GG20 HT200 FC200 Grade220 - Ft20 D G20 - 120
No 35 B 0.6025 GG25 HT250 FC250 Grade260 - Ft25 D G25 FG25 125
No 45 B 0.603 GG30 HT300 FC300 Grade300 - Ft30 D G30 FG30 130
No 50 B 0.6035 GG35 HT350 FC350 Grade350 - Ft35 D G35 FG35 135
No 55 B 0.604 GG40 HT400 - Grade400 - Ft40 D - - 140
Stainless Steel(Ferrite type/Martensitic type)
USA Germany CHINA Japan Great Britain France Italy Spain Sweden
403 1.4 X7Cr13 0Cr13/1Cr12 SUS403 403S17 - Z6C13 X6Cr13 F.3110 2301
410 1.4006 X10Cr13 1Cr13 SUS410 410S21 56A Z10C14 X12Cr13 F.3401 2302
430 1.4016 X8Cr17 1Cr17 SUS430 430S15 60 Z8C17 X8Cr17 F.3113 2320
- 1.4034 X46Cr13 4Cr13 SUS420J2 420S45 56D Z40CM/Z38C13M X40Cr14 F.3405 2304
431 1.4057 X22CrNi17 1Cr17Ni2 SUS431 431S29 57 Z15CNi6.02 X16CrNi16 F.3427 2321
430F 1.4104 X12CrMoS17 Y1Cr17 SUS430F - - Z10CF17 X10CrS17 F.3117 2383
434 1.4113 X6CrMo17 1Cr17Mo SUS434 434S17 - Z8CD17.01 X8CrMo17 - 2325
405 1.4724 X10CrA113 0Cr13AI SUS405 403S17 - Z10C13 X10CrA112 F.311 -
430 1.4742 X10CrA118 Cr17 SUS430 430S15 60 Z10CAS18 X8Cr17 F.3113 -
EV8 1.4871 X53CrMnNiN219 5Cr2Mn9Ni4N SUH35 349S54 - Z52CMN21.09 X53CrMnNiN219 - -
Heat-resistant Steel
USA Germany CHINA Japan Great Britain France Italy Spain Sweden
330 1.4864 X12NiCrSi3616 - suh330 - - Z12NCS35.16 - - -
HT,HT50 1.4865 G-X40NiCrSi3818 - sch15 330C11 - - XG50NiCr3919 - -
Alloy Steel
USA Germany CHINA Japan Great Britain France Italy Spain Sweden
9255 1.0904 55SI7 55Si2Mn - 250A53 45 55S7 55Si8 56Si7 2085
ASTM52100 1.3505 100Cr6 Gr15 45G SUJ2 534A99 31 100C6 100Cr6 F.131 2258
5015 1.7015 15Cr3 15Cr SCr415(H) 523M15 - 12C3 - - -
5140 1.7045 42Cr4 40Cr SCR440 - - - - 42Cr4 2245
5155 1.7176 55Cr3 20CrMn SUP9(A) 527A60 48 55C3 - - -
4340 1.6582 34CRNiMo6 40CrNiMoA - 817M40 24 35NCD6 35NiCrMo6(KB) - 2541
5132 1.7033 34Cr4 35Cr SCr430(H) 530A32 18B 32C4 34Cr4(KB) 35Cr4 -
5140 1.7035 41Cr4 40Cr SCr440(H) 530M40 18 42C4 41Cr4 42Cr4 -
5115 1.7131 16MnCr5 18CrMn - 527M20 - 16MC5 16MnCr5 16MnCr5 2511
4130 1.7218 25CrMo4 30CrMn SCM420/SCM430 1717CDS110/708M20 - 25CD4 25CrMo4(KB) 55Cr3 2225
4137/4135 1.722 34CrMo4 35Crmo SCM432/SCCRM3 708A37 19B 32CD4 35CrMo4 34CrMo4 2234
4140/4142 1.7223 41CrMo4 40CrMoA SCM440 708M40 19A 42CD4TS 41CrMo4 42CrMo4 2244
4140 1.7225 42CrMo4 42CrMo/42CrMnMo SCM440(H) 708M40 19A 42CD4TS 42CrMo4 42CrMo4 2244
6150 1.8159 50CrV4 50CrVA SUP10 735A50 47 50CV4 50CrV4 51Cr4 2230
L3 1.2067 100Cr6 CrV/9SiCr - BL3 - Y100C6 - 100Cr6 -
- 1.2419 105WCr6 CrWMo SKS31/SKS2,/SKS3 - - 105WC13 100WCr6/107WCr5KU 105WCr5 2140
L6 1.2713 55NiCrMoV6 5CrNimo SKT4 BH224/5 - 55NCDV7 - F.520.S -
D3/ASTM D3 1.208 X210Cr12 C12 SKD1 BD3 - Z200C12 X210Cr13KU/X250Cr12KU X210Cr12 -
H13/ASTM H13 1.2344 X40CrmoV51 40CrMoV5 SKD61 BH13 - Z40CDV5 X35CrMoV05KU/X40CrMoV51KU X40CrMoV5 2242
A2 1.2363 X100CrMoV51 100CrMoV5 SKD12 BA2 - Z100CDV5 X100CrMoV51KU X100CrMoVV5 2260
H21 1.2581 X30WCrV93 30WCrV9 SKD5 BH21 - Z30WCV9 X28W09KU X300WcrV9 -
W210 1.2833 100V1 V SKS43 BW2 - Y1105V - - -
T4 1.3255 S18-1-2-5 W18Cr4VCo5 SKH3 BT4 - Z80WKCV X78WCo1805KU HS18-1-1-5 -
HW3 1.4718 X45CrSi93 X45CrSi93 SUH1 401S45 52 Z45CS9 X45CrSi8 F.322 -
2722 SKH51 1.3343 M2 SKH9 S6/5/2 BM2 - Z85WDCV HS6-5-2-2 F.5603
2782 1.3348 S M7 - 200/9/2 - - - HS2-9-2 HS2-9-2
Stainless Steel(austenitic type)
USA Germany CHINA Japan Great Britain France Italy Spain Sweden
304L 1.4306 X2CrNi1911 0Cr19Ni10 SUS340L 304S11 - Z2CN18.10 X2CrNi18.11 - 2352
304 1.435 X5CrNi189 0Cr18Ni9 SUS304 304S11 58E Z6CN18.09 X5CrNi1810 F.3551/F.3541/F.3504 2332
303 1.4305 X12CrNiS188 1Cr18Ni9MoZr SUS303 303S21 58M Z10CNF18.09 X10CrNiS18.09 F.3508 2346
301 1.431 X12CrNi177 Cr17Ni7 SUS301 - - Z12CN17.07 X12CrNi1707 F.3517 2331
316 1.4401 X5CrNiMo1810 0Cr17Ni11Mo2 SUSU316 316S16 58J Z6CND17.11 X5CrNiMo1712 F.3543 2347
316LN 1.4429 X2CrNiMoN1813 0Cr17Ni13Mo SUSU316LN - - Z2CND17.13 - - 2375
316LN 1.4435 X2CrNiMo1812 0Cr27Ni12Mo3 SCS16/SUS316L 316S13 - Z2CND17.12 X2CrNiMo1712 - 2353
317L 1.4438 X2CrNiMo1816 0Cr19Ni13Mo SUS317L 317S12 - Z2CND19.15 X2CrNiMo1816 - 2367
321 1.4541 X10CrNiTi189 1Cr18Ni9Ti SUS321 321S12 58B Z6CNT18.10 X6CrNiTi1811 F.3553/F.3523 2337
347 1.455 X10CrNiNb189 1Cr18Ni11Nb SUS347 347S17 58F Z6CNNb18.10 X6CrNiNb1811 F.3552/F.3524 2338
316Ti 1.4571 X10CrNiMoTi1810 Cr18Ni12Mo2T - 320S17 58J Z6CNDT17.12 X6CrNiMoTi1712 F.3535 2350
309 1.4828 X15CrNiSi2012 1Cr23Ni13 SUH309 309S24 - Z15CNS20.12 X6CrNi2520 - -
310S 1.4845 S12CrNi2521 0Cr25Ni20 SUH310 310S24 - Z12CN2520 X6CrNi2520 F.331 2361
321 1.4878 X12CrNiti189 1Cr18Ni9Ti SUS321 321S32 58B,58C Z6CNT18.12B X6CrNiTi1811 F.3523 -
Nodular cast iron
USA Germany CHINA Japan Great Britain France Italy Spain Sweden
60-40-18 0.704 GGG 40 QT400-18 FCD400 SNG 420/12 - FCS 400-12 GS 370-17 FGE 38-17 07 17-02
80-55-06 0.705 GGG 50 QT500-7 FCD500 SNG 500/7 - FGS 500-7  GS 500 FGE 50-7 07 27-02
- - GGG 60 QT600-3 FCD600 SNG 600/3 - FGS 600-3 - - 07 32-03
100-70-03 0.707 GGG 70 QT700-18 FCD700 SNG 700/2 - FGS 700-2 GS 700-2 FGS 70-2 07 37-01
Carbon Steel Chemical composition
Steel Grade Standard Number Type Chemical composition Other
C Si S P Mn Cr Ni Mo Other ób ós δ5 HB
20 GB/T699 Bar 0.17-0.23 0.17-0.37 0.035 0.035 0.35-0.65 0.25 0.3 Cu:0.25 410 245 25 156 ψ%:55
20 GB3087 Pipe 0.17-0.23 0.17-0.37 0.035 0.035 0.35-0.65 0.25 0.3 Cu:0.25 410-550 245 20
20 GB/T8163 Pipe 0.17-0.23 0.17-0.37 0.035 0.035 0.35-0.65 0.25 0.3 Cu:0.25 410-550 245 20
20 GB9948 Pipe 0.17-0.24 0.17-0.37 0.035 0.035 0.35-0.65 0.25 0.25 Cu:0.25 410-550 245 21 Akv J:39
20 GB711 Plate 0.17-0.24 0.17-0.37 0.04 0.035 0.35-0.65 0.25 0.25 Cu:0.25 410 245 28
20G GB5310 Pipe 0.17-0.24 0.17-0.37 0.03 0.03 0.35-0.65 0.25 0.25 0.15 Cu:0.2;V:0.08 410-550 245 24 Akv J:35
20G GB6479 Pipe 0.17-0.24 0.17-0.37 0.035 0.035 0.35-0.65 410-550 245 24 ak J/cm2:49
20g GB713 Plate 0.2 0.15-0.3 0.035 0.035 0.5-0.9 400-530 245 26 Akv J:27;aku J/cm2:29
20R GB6654 Plate 0.2 0.15-0.3 0.03 0.035 0.4-0.9 400-520 245 25 Akv J:31
Q235A GB3724 Plate 0.14-0.22 0.3 0.05 0.045 0.3-0.65 375-500 235 26
Q235B GB3724 Plate 0.12-0.2 0.3 0.045 0.045 0.3-0.7 375-500 235 26 Akv J:27
Q235 Steel Properties and Introduction

Q235 steel is a Chinese GB standard plain carbon structural steel, and divided into 4 quality grades: Q235A, Q235B, Q235C and Q235D, material density is 7.85 g/cm3, tensile strength is from 370 to 500 MPa, and yield strength is 235 MPa (tested with 16mm diameter steel bar or steel plate). “Q” is the first letter of Chinese spelling of “qu fu dian”, which means Yield Point, “235” refers to 235 MPa. The latest standard of steel Q235 is GB/T 700 – 2006.

Features and Applications

Q235 steel has good plasticity, toughness and weldability, as well as a certain strength, good cold bending performance. Q235 material is usually rolled into wire rod or round steel, square steel, flat steel, angle steel, I beam, channel steel, other sections and steel plates. These products are widely used in construction and engineering welded structures, to make steel bars or build factory buildings, high voltage transmission towers, bridges, vehicles, boilers, containers, etc., and also used as a mechanical part with less demanding performance such as less stressed rods, connecting rods, screws, nuts, ferrules, brackets, and stands, etc.

Q235 Steel Chemical Composition %
Steel Grade Quality Grade C (≤) Si (≤) Mn (≤) P (≤) S (≤) Deoxidation Method
Q235 Q235A 0.22 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.050 Rimmed / Killed
Q235B 0.20 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.045 Rimmed / Killed
Q235C 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.040 0.040 Killed
Q235D 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.035 0.035 Exceptionally Killed
Q235 Mechanical Properties
Steel Grade Quality Yield Strength (≥ N/mm2) Tensile Strength(N/mm2) Elongation (≥%) Impact Test (V notch)
Thickness or Dia. Ø mm Thickness or Dia. Ø mm Temp. ℃ Absorbed Energy (Vertical, ≥J)
Ø ≤16 16 < Ø ≤40 40 < Ø ≤60 60 < Ø ≤100 100 < Ø ≤150 150 < Ø ≤200 Ø ≤40 40 < Ø ≤60 60 < Ø ≤100 100 < Ø ≤150 150 < Ø ≤200
Q235 Q235A 235 225 215 205 195 185 370 – 500 26 25 24 22 21
Q235B +20 27
Q235C 0
Q235D -20
Table-3, Bending Test Results of Q235 Material
Cold Bending Test 180° (B=2a)
Grade Sample Orientation Steel Ø of Curve Center
≤ 60mm > 60-100 mm
Q235 Vertical a 2a
Horizontal 1.5a 2.5a

B= Sample Steel Width; a= Sample Diameter or Thickness.

Steel rolled with q195 and q235B grade rimmed steel, the thickness or diameter of which is not more than 25mm.

  • Q235 Steel Equivalent
  • Q235 material equivalent to US ASTM, ISO, European EN, Germany DIN EN, British BS EN, France NF EN, Japanese JIS Standard.
  • Q235 India equivalent is E250, Indian standard is IS 2062.

S235JRG2 and S235J2G4 are old designations in EN 10025:1993, S235JRG2 is replaced by the new designation S235JR (1.0038), and S235J2G4 replaced by S235J2 (1.0117) in EN 10025-2:2004.

China USA Germany Britain (UK) Japan France ISO
Standard Grade Standard Grade Standard Grade (Steel Number) Standard Grade (Steel Number) Standard Grade Standard Grade (Steel Number) Standard Grade
GB/T 700 Q235A ASTM A36/A36M;
ASTM A283/A283M
A36 steel;
Grade D
BS 970 Prat 1 080A15 JIS G 3101;
JIS G 3106
GB/T 700 Q235B ASTM A36;
ASTM A283/A283M
Grade D
DIN EN 10025-2 S235JR(1.0038) BS EN 10025-2 S235JR
JIS G3101;
JIS G3106
NF EN 10025-2 S235JR (1.0038)
GB/T 700 Q235C ASTM A36;
ASTM A283/A283M;
ASTM A573/A573M
Grade D;
Grade 58
DIN EN 10025-2 S235J0
BS EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) JIS G3106 SM400A,
NF EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) ISO 630-2 S235B
GB/T 700 Q235D ASTM A36;
Grade D
DIN EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) BS EN 10025-2 S235J0 (1.0114) JIS G3106 SM400A NF EN 10025-2 S235J0
ISO 630-2 S235B,

Q195 vs Q215, Q235 and Q275 Steel

Here we show the difference between Q195 vs Q215, Q235 & Q275, these steel series all belong to Chinese standard carbon structural steel, the lising below shows the difference of chemical composition and mechanical properties.

Chemical Composition %
Steel Series Steel Grade C  (≤) Si (≤) Mn (≤) P (≤) S (≤)
Q195 Q195 0.12 0.30 0.50 0.035 0.040
Q215 Series Q215A 0.15 0.35 1.20 0.045 0.050
Q215B 0.15 0.35 1.20 0.045 0.045
Q235 Series Q235A 0.22 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.050
Q235B 0.20 0.35 1.40 0.045 0.045
Q235C 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.040 0.040
Q235D 0.17 0.35 1.40 0.035 0.035
Q275 Series Q275A 0.24 0.35 1.50 0.045 0.050
Q275B 0.21 0.35 1.50 0.045 0.045
Q275C 0.20 0.35 1.50 0.040 0.040
Q275D 0.20 0.35 1.50 0.035 0.035
Mechanical Properties (MPa)
Grade Yield Strength Tensile Strength
Q195 195 315-430
Q215 215 335-450
Q235 235 370-500
Q275 275 410-540

1 N/mm2 = 1 Mpa

Tags: Q195 vs Q215, Q195 vs Q235, Q195 vs Q275

Carbon steel specification, Standard and identification

Carbon steel pipe tubing is used to transport fluids and gases in a variety of pneumatic, hydraulic, and process applications.

Available Specification

Product Name Executive Standard Dimension (mm) Steel Code / Steel Grade
Casting API 5CT Ø114-219 x WT5.2-22.2 J55, K55, N80, L80, P110
Tubing API 5CT Ø48.3-114.3 x WT3.2-16 J55, K55, N80, L80, P110
Product Name Executive Standard Dimension (mm) Steel Code / Steel Grade
Line Pipes API 5L Ø10.3-1200 x WT1.0-120 A, B, X42, X46, X52, X60, X70, X80, PSL1 / PSL2
Product Name Executive Standard Dimension (mm) Steel Code / Steel Grade
 Black and Hot-Dipped Zinc-Coated Seamless Steel Pipes ASTM A53 Ø10.3-1200 x WT1.0-150 Gr.A, Gr.B, Gr.C
Seamless Carbon Steel Pipes for High Temperature Service ASTM A106 Ø10.3-1200 x WT1.0-150 Gr.B, Gr.C
Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes ASTM A179 Ø10.3-426 x WT1.0-36 Low Carbon Steel
Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High Pressure ASTM A192 Ø10.3-426 x WT1.0-36 Low Carbon Steel
Seamless Cold-Drawn Intermediate Alloy Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes ASTM A199 Ø10.3-426 x 1.0-36 T5, T22
Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes ASTM A210 Ø10.3-426 x WT1.0-36 A1, C
Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler, Superheater and Heat-Exchanger Tubes ASTM A213 Ø10.3-426 x WT1.0-36 T5, T9, T11, T12, T22, T91
Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel for Mechanical Tubing ASTM A333 Ø1/4"-42" x WT SCH20-XXS Gr.1, Gr.3, Gr.6
Seamless and Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Alloy Steel Pipes for Low Temperature Use ASTM A334 Ø1/4"-4" x WT SCH20-SCH80 Gr.1, Gr.6
Seamless Cold-Drawn Carbon Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes ASTM A556 Ø10.3-426 x WT1.0-36 A2, B2
Product Name Executive Standard Dimension (mm) Steel Code / Steel Grade
Seamless Steel Tubes for Elevated Temperature DIN 17175 Ø10-762 x WT1.0-120 St35.8, St45.8, 10CrMo910, 15Mo3, 13CrMo44, STPL340, STB410, STB510, WB36
Seamless Steel Tubes DIN 1629 / DIN 2391 Ø13.5-762 x WT1.8-120 St37.0, St44.0, St52.0, St52.3
Seamless Steel Tubes DIN 2440 Ø13.5-165.1 x WT1.8-4.85 St33.2
Seamless Steel Pipes for Structural Purpose DIN 2393 Ø16-426 x WT1.0-36 RSt34-2, RSt37-2, RSt44-2, St52
Product Name Executive Standard Dimension (mm) Steel Code / Steel Grade
Seamless Steel Tubes for Machine Structure BS 970 Ø10-762 x WT1.0-120 Carbon Steel
Seamless Steel Tubes for Boiler and Heat Exchangers BS 3059 Ø10-762 x WT1.0-120 360, 410, 440, 460, 490

Carbon steel pipe cooling method varies with the material. For most kinds of steel use natural cooling to meet the requirements.

Carbon steel pipe is the most commonly and widely used in the gas project field.
The large diameter coated steel pipes are widely used in tap water, natural gas, petroleum, chemical, pharmaceutical, telecommunications, electricity, large diameter steel marine engineering field generally less than the outer diameter of the tubes 89 are collectively referred to as small-diameter steel pipe.

Carbon steel tube mechanical properties is generated in the carbon steel smelting defect smelting and casting process, such as segregation, non-metallic inclusions, porosity, shrinkage and cracks.

Carbon steel pipe anti-rust oil: it is with a high corrosion resistance and adhesion,which does not contain harmful substances such as formaldehyde, benzene, heavy metals, environmental protection and the operator's physical and mental health.

Density is calculated by dividing the mass by the volume. The density of carbon steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm3 (0.284 lb/in3).

Improving the performance of the steel is two ways, First, adjusting the chemical composition of the steel alloying; the other is the heat treatment, heat treatment and shaping deformation combination of approaches. In the field of modern industrial technology, heat treatment to improve the performance of the steel still occupy a dominant position.

Advantages of carbon steel: smelting process is relatively simple, low cost, good pressure processing performance, good cutting performance and good mechanical properties.

Inner diameter of seamless steel pipe is more than 6.0mm and wall thickness is less than 13mm annealed seamless steel pipe material, which can be used W-B75 Webster Hardness test with very fast, easy, suitable for rapid non-destructive of the seamless steel pipe material qualified inspection.

Low carbon steel is a type of metal that has an alloying element made up of a relatively low amount of carbon. Typically, it has a carbon content that ranges between 0.05% and 0.30% and a manganese content that falls between 0.40 and 1.5%. Low carbon steel is one of the most common types of steel used for general purposes, in part because it is often less expensive than other types of steel.

Carbon steel pipe rusting

Carbon steel pipe anti-rust oil: it is with a high corrosion resistance and adhesion,which does not contain harmful substances such as formaldehyde, benzene, heavy metals, environmental protection and the operator's physical and mental health.

Brinell hardness (HB) with a certain diameter of the steel balls or tungsten carbide balls, pressed into the pattern surface of a predetermined test force (F), after the predetermined hold time after drop test force, the diameter of the measurement sample surface indentation (L).

Steel is an alloy that mostly contains iron. But its properties can be changed to suit specific requirements by adding certain other elements.

Encountered hole problems are very common in the welding process, welding materials drying, corrosion of the base metal and welding consumables, welding process is not stable enough oil and impurities and to protect the poor will be varying degrees of blowholes.

The strip is into the welded pipe unit and by the multi-channel roll rolling, gradually rolled strip steel, formed with an opening gap round tube, adjust the amount of reduction squeeze rollers, so that the weld gap control for carbon steel pipe in 1 - 3mm, and to weld ends flush. If the gap is too large and will result in reduced proximity effect, eddy current lack of heat, poor weld joint between grain yield incomplete fusion or cracking.

Delivery standard length of carbon steel pipe, also known as user requirements length or the length of the contract, there are four provisions in the existing standards

Carbon steel internal defects is generated in the carbon steel smelting defect smelting and casting process, such as segregation, non-metallic inclusions, porosity, shrinkage and cracks.

Carbon steel tube mechanical properties is generated in the carbon steel smelting defect smelting and casting process, such as segregation, non-metallic inclusions, porosity, shrinkage and cracks.

Carbon steel defect is caused by the equipment, processes and operations in carbon steel smelting and rolling (forging) process, including scarring, cracks, residual shrinkage, layered, white point, segregation, non-metallic inclusions, such as osteoporosis and banded.

EN10025(93) S235JR(G2),S235 J0,S235J2G3,S235J2G4

For S235 steel , S means structural . 235 mean it's yield strength should be more than 235 MPa. The steel grades S235 may be supplied in qualities JR, JR(G2),J0,J2, J2G3,J2G4.

S235 grade steel is a readily weldable low carbon manganese steel with good impact resistance (including in sub-zero temperatures).

This material is commonly supplied in the untreated or normalised condition and is available in several variations (denoted by additional letters and/or digits), which offer slight modifications of chemical composition and mechanical properties.

Machinability of this material is similar to that of mild steel.

  • JR means impact test at 20 degree.
  • J0 means impact test at 0 degree
  • J2 means impact test at -20 degree.

Delivery condition of S235 steel has :

Normalizing rolling (+N) : rolling process in which the final deformation is carried out in a certain temperature range leading to a material condition equivalent to that obtained after normalizing so that the specified values of the mechanical properties are retained even after normalizing.

as-rolled(+AR): delivery condition without any special rolling and/or heat treatment condition.

thermomechanical rolling: rolling process in which the final deformation is carried out in a certain temperature range leading to a material condition with certain properties which cannot be achieved or repeated by heat treatment alone.

If you are interested to know more information about S235JR(G2),S235 J0,S235J2G3, S235J2G4 steel, please contact our sales team.

Flange materials specification

Dimensions from carbon steel and stainless steel flanges are defined in the ASME B16.5 standard. The material qualities for these flanges are defined in the ASTM standards.