Introduction of nickel

Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks, and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere.

Nickel is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge that takes a high polish. It is one of only four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature, the others being iron, cobalt and gadolinium. Its Curie temperature is 355 °C (671 °F), meaning that bulk nickel is non-magnetic above this temperature.[11] The unit cell of nickel is a face-centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm, giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nm. This crystal structure is stable to pressures of at least 70 GPa. Nickel belongs to the transition metals. It is hard, malleable and ductile, and has a relatively high for transition metals electrical and thermal conductivity. The high compressive strength of 34 GPa, predicted for ideal crystals, is never obtained in the real bulk material due to the formation and movement of dislocations; however, it has been reached in Ni nanoparticles.

Nickel metal is mainly used in the electroplating industry. Nickel-plated items are beautiful, clean, and not easy to rust. Very fine nickel powder is often used as a catalyst in the chemical industry.

Nickel is used extensively to make alloys. Adding nickel to steel can improve the mechanical strength. For example, when the nickel content in steel increases from 294% to 7.04%, the tensile strength increases from 522 kg / mm2 to 728 kg / mm3. Nickel steel is used to manufacture parts such as turbine blades, crankshafts, connecting rods, etc. where the machine is subjected to high pressure, impact and reciprocating loads. Nickel steel with 36% nickel content and 0.3-05% carbon content has a very small expansion coefficient and hardly expands and contracts without shrinking. It is used to manufacture a variety of precision machinery and precise gauges. High nickel steel with 46% nickel and 015% carbon is called "platinum-like" because its expansion coefficient is similar to platinum and glass. This high nickel steel can be welded into glass. It is very important in the production of light bulbs and can be used as a substitute for platinum wire. Some precision lens frames are also made of this platinum-like steel, and the lens will not fall out of the frame due to thermal expansion and contraction. An alloy composed of 675% nickel, 16% iron, 15% chromium, and 15% manganese has a large resistance and is used to manufacture various varistor and electric heater.

Titanium-nickel alloy has the ability of "memory", and the memory is very strong, after a long time, repeated tens of millions of times without error. Its "memory" ability is to remember its original shape, so people call it "shape memory alloy". It turns out that this alloy has a characteristic transition temperature. Above the transition temperature, it has a structure, and below the transition temperature, it has another structure. Different structures have different performances. For example: a titanium-nickel memory alloy, when it is above the transition temperature, it is very hard and strong, but below this temperature, it is very soft and easy to cold work. In this way, when we need it to remember what shape, we make it into that shape, which is its "permanent memory" shape, below the transition temperature, because it is very soft, we can make it to a considerable extent It deforms arbitrarily. And when it is needed to return to its original shape, just heat it above the transition temperature.

Nickel is magnetic and can be attracted by magnets. The alloy made of aluminum, cobalt and nickel is more magnetic. When this alloy is attracted by an electromagnet, not only will it be sucked in, but it will also hang something sixty times heavier under it, and it will not fall. In this way, it can be used to manufacture electromagnetic cranes.

Nickel salts are mostly green. Nickel hydroxide is brownish black, and nickel oxide is grayish black. Nickel oxide is commonly used to make iron-nickel alkaline batteries.



Alloy steel specification, Standard and identification

Alloy Steel pipe contains substantial quantities of elements other than carbon such as nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium and limited amounts of other commonly accepted elements such as manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorous.

Q&A

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The most important and desired changes in alloy steel are:

Alloy steels are made by combining carbon steel with one or several alloying elements, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum. These metals are added to produce specific properties that are not found in regular carbon steel. The elements are added in varying proportions (or combinations) making the material take on different aspects such as increased hardness, increased corrosion resistance, increased strength, improved formability (ductility); the weldability can also change.

  • Increased hardenability.
  • Increased corrosion resistance.
  • Retention of hardness and strength.

Nearly all alloy steels require heat treatment in order to bring out their best properties.

Alloying Elements & Their Effects

  • Chromium – Adds hardness. Increased toughness and wear resistance.
  • Cobalt – Used in making cutting tools; improved Hot Hardness (or Red Hardness).
  • Manganese – Increases surface hardness. Improves resistance to strain, hammering & shocks.
  • Molybdenum – Increases strength. Improves resistance to shock and heat.
  • Nickel – Increases strength & toughness. Improves corrosion resistance.
  • Tungsten – Adds hardness and improves grain structure. Provides improved heat resistance.
  • Vanadium – Increases strength, toughness and shock resistance. Improved corrosion resistance.
  • Chromium-Vanadium – Greatly improved tensile strength. It is hard but easy to bend and cut.
ASTM A335 P11 alloy pipe


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