How to distinguish pipe material

Steel is steel carbon content between 0.04% -2.3% of the iron-carbon alloys. In order to ensure its toughness and ductility, the carbon content of not more than 1.7%. The main elements of the steel in addition to iron, carbon, there are silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus.

Classification of Steel diverse variety of steel products, the main methods are summarized as follows:

1, According to the quality classification of steel
(1) Ordinary steel (P≤0.045%, S≤0.050%)
(2) Quality Steel Material Steel (P, S were ≤0.035%)
(3) High quality steel (P≤0.035%, S≤0.030%)

2, According to chemical composition
(1) Carbon steel: low carbon steel (C≤0.25%); carbon steel (C≤0.25 ~ 0.60%); high-carbon steel (C≤0.60%)
(2) Alloy steel: low-alloy steel (the total content of alloying elements ≤5%); the steel (the total content of alloying elements> 5 ~ 10%); high alloy steel (alloy element total content of> 10... %).

3, According to Steel forming method
(1) Forged;
(2) steel;
(3) hot-rolled steel;
(4) cold drawn steel.

4, Steel microstructure by Category
(1) Annealed state:
a, sub-eutectoid steel (ferrite + pearlite);
b, eutectoid steel (pearlite);
c, analysis over a total steel steel (pearlite + cementite);
d, ledeburite (pearlite + cementite).

(2) Normalizing the status of:

a, pearlite steels;
b, bainitic steel;
c, martensitic steel;
d, austenitic steel

(3) Steel phase transition or in part without phase change

5, By Application
(1) Construction and engineering steels: a plain carbon steel; b low alloy structural steel; c reinforced steel.
(2) Steel structural steel machinery manufacturing steel: (a) the structure of quenched and tempered steel; (b) surface hardening steel: including hardened steel, steel ammonia infiltration, surface hardening of steel; (c) easy to cut structural steel ; (d) cold plastic forming of steel: steel, including cold stamping, cold heading steel. b spring steel;.. c bearing steel
(3) Tool steel: a, carbon tool steel; b, alloy tool steel; c, high speed tool steel.
(4) The special properties of steel: a, stainless steel acid; b, heat-resistant steel: Includes antioxidant steel, heat resistant steel, valve steel; c, electric steel; d, wear-resistant steel; e, cryogenic steel .... ;. f, electrical steel.
(5) Specialty steel - such as bridge steel, shipbuilding steel, boiler steel, pressure vessel steel, steel and other farm machinery.

6, By refining methods classification
(1) Press the furnace Seed
. a open-hearth steel:
(a) an acid open-hearth steel;
(b) the basic open-hearth steel.
b converter steel:
(a) Bessemer steel;
(b) the basic converter steel. Or (a) bottom blowing converter steel;
(b) side-blown converter steel;
(c) BOF steel.
. c EAF: (a) electric arc furnace steel; (b) ESR furnace steel; (c) induction furnace steel; (d) Vacuum furnace steel consumption; (e) electron beam furnace steel.

(2) the extent and cast steel by deoxygenation system points
a, boiling steel; b, semi-killed steel; c, killed steel; d, special killed steel.


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The most important and desired changes in alloy steel are:

Alloy steels are made by combining carbon steel with one or several alloying elements, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum. These metals are added to produce specific properties that are not found in regular carbon steel. The elements are added in varying proportions (or combinations) making the material take on different aspects such as increased hardness, increased corrosion resistance, increased strength, improved formability (ductility); the weldability can also change.

  • Increased hardenability.
  • Increased corrosion resistance.
  • Retention of hardness and strength.

Nearly all alloy steels require heat treatment in order to bring out their best properties.

Alloying Elements & Their Effects

  • Chromium – Adds hardness. Increased toughness and wear resistance.
  • Cobalt – Used in making cutting tools; improved Hot Hardness (or Red Hardness).
  • Manganese – Increases surface hardness. Improves resistance to strain, hammering & shocks.
  • Molybdenum – Increases strength. Improves resistance to shock and heat.
  • Nickel – Increases strength & toughness. Improves corrosion resistance.
  • Tungsten – Adds hardness and improves grain structure. Provides improved heat resistance.
  • Vanadium – Increases strength, toughness and shock resistance. Improved corrosion resistance.
  • Chromium-Vanadium – Greatly improved tensile strength. It is hard but easy to bend and cut.
ASTM A335 P11 alloy pipe


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