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Pipe elbows

Pipe elbows are used to be installed between two lengths of pipe or tube

Definition of Pipe elbow

ELBOW  CS AS PER API 5L X52 PSL1
ELBOW CS AS PER API 5L X52 PSL1

An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle, though 22.5° elbows are also made. The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed, etc. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.

An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 180° or 90° angle, though 45° elbows are also made. The ends may be machined for butt welding (SW) or socketed welding(SW) etc.

Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius variants. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.

Elbows are categorized based on various design features as below:

Size range:

Elbow Size

Recommended type of pipe elbows:

Materials

  • Carbon steel: ASTM/ASME A234 WPB-WPC
  • Alloy steel: --WP 22-WP 5-WP 91-WP 911
  • Low temperature steel: ASTM/ASME A402 WPL 3-WPL 6
  • High performance steel: ASTM/ASME A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70
  • Stainless steel: ASTM/ASME A403 WP 304-304L-304H-304LN-304N
    • ASTM/ASME A403 WP 316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti
    • ASTM/ASME A403 WP 321-321H ASTM/ASME A403 WP 347-347H

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Pipe elbows

Butt Weld Pipe Fitting Bevel

  • All welded pipe fittings have bevelled end to allow for ease of welding.
  • This bevel allows for full penetration weld in most cases.
  • There are two types of bevels;
    Plain Bevel and Compound Bevel: according to the bevel of welding pipe fittings construction .
  • ASME B16.28, Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
Industrial Processes: Bending, squeezing, pressing, forging, machining and more ANSI/ASME B16.25, Buttwelding Ends
ANSI/ASME B16.25 Standard covers the preparation of butt welding ends of piping components to be joined into a piping system by welding.

Application of pipe elbows:

Petroleum, chemical, power, gas, metallurgy, shipbuilding, construction, etc.

ELL & ELLS

  • A wing of a building at right angles to the main structure.
  • A right-angled bend in a pipe or conduit; an elbow.

Elbows are design features as below

A 90 degree elbow is also called a “90 bend” or “90 ell”. It is a fitting which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow in the pipe. It used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a “quarter bend”.

A 90 degree elbow attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead. It can also attach to rubber with stainless steel clamps. It is available in many materials like silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, etc. The main application of an elbow (90 degree) is to connect hoses to valves, water pressure pumps, and deck drains. These elbows can be made from tough nylon material or NPT thread.


A 45 degree elbow is also called a “45 bend” or “45 ell”. It is commonly used in water supply facilities, food industrial pipeline networks, chemical industrial pipeline networks, electronic industrial pipeline networks, air conditioning facility pipeline, agriculture and garden production transporting system, pipeline network for solar energy facility, etc.

Elbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which they change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the "center to face" distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent.

Here below, for example, you will find the center to face distance of NPS 2 elbows (the A distance on the image)


3D elbows as an example, are calculated with: 3(D) x 2(NPS) x 25.4
  •  90°-LR : = 1½ x 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=76.2 mm
  •  180°-LR : = 2 times the 90° LR elbow A=152.4 mm
  • 90°-SR : = 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=50.8 mm
  • 180°-SR : = 2 times the 90° SR elbow A=101.6 mm

The center to face distance for a "long" radius elbow, abbreviated LR always is "1½ x Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) (1½D)", while the center to face distance for a "short" radius elbow, abbreviated SR even is to nominal pipe size.

Elbow Size
Nominal pipe size Outside Diameter 
at Bevel 
Center to End Center to Center Back to Faces
45° Elbows 90°Elbows 180°Return
H
        F
       P
       K

DN

INCH

Series A Series B LR LR SR LR
SR
LR
SR
15
1/2
21.3
18
16
38
-
76
-
48
-
20
3/4
26.9
25
16
38
-
76
-
51
-
25
1
33.7
32
16
38
25
76
51
56
41
32
11/4
42.4
38
20
48
32
95
64
70
52
40
11/2
48.3
45
24
57
38
114
76
83
62
50
2
60.3
57
32
76
51
152
102
106
81
65
21/2
76.1(73)
76
40
95
64
191
127
132
100
80
3
88.9
89
47
114
76
229
152
159
121
90
31/2
101.6
-
55
133
89
267
178
184
140
100
4
114.3
108
63
152
102
305
203
210
159
125
5
139.7
133
79
190
127
381
254
262
197
150
6
168.3
159
95
229
152
457
305
313
237
200
8
219.1
219
126
305
203
610
406
414
313
250
10
273.0
273
158
381
254
762
508
518
391
300
12
323.9
325
189
457
305
914
610
619
467
350
14
355.6
377
221
533
356
1067
711
711
533
400
16
406.4
426
253
610
406
1219
813
813
610
450
18
457.2
478
284
686
457
1372
914
914
686
500
20
508.0
529
316
762
508
1524
1016
1016
762
550
22
559
-
347
838
559
600
24
610
630
379
914
610
650
26
660
-
410
991
660
700
28
711
720
442
1067
711
750
30
762
-
473
1143
762
800
32
813
820
505
1219
813
850
34
864
-
537
1295
864
900
36
914
920
568
1372
914
950
38
965
-
600
1448
965
1000
40
1016
1020
631
1524
1016
1050
42
1067
-
663
1600
1067
1100
44
1118
1120
694
1676
1118
1150
46
1168
-
726
1753
1168
1200
48
1220
1220
758
1829
1219



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