Definition of Pipe elbow

ELBOW  CS AS PER API 5L X52 PSL1
ELBOW CS AS PER API 5L X52 PSL1

An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle, though 22.5° elbows are also made. The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed, etc. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.

An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 180° or 90° angle, though 45° elbows are also made. The ends may be machined for butt welding (SW) or socketed welding(SW) etc.

Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius variants. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.

Elbows are categorized based on various design features as below:

Size range:

Elbow Size
  • Seamless elbow: 1/2"-24" DN15-DN600
  • Welding elbow: 6"-72" DN150-DN1800
  • Wall thickness: Sch5-Sch160 XXS

Recommended type of pipe elbows:

Materials
Carbon steel elbow
  • Carbon steel: ASTM/ASME A234 WPB-WPC
  • Alloy steel: --WP 22-WP 5-WP 91-WP 911
    • Low temperature steel: ASTM/ASME A402 WPL 3-WPL 6
    • High performance steel: ASTM/ASME A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70
    Stainless steel:
    • ASTM/ASME A403 WP 304-304L-304H-304LN-304N
    • ASTM/ASME A403 WP 316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti
    • ASTM/ASME A403 WP 321-321H ASTM/ASME A403 WP 347-347H

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    Pipe elbows

    Butt Weld Pipe Fitting Bevel

    • All welded pipe fittings have bevelled end to allow for ease of welding.
    • This bevel allows for full penetration weld in most cases.
    • There are two types of bevels;
      Plain Bevel and Compound Bevel: according to the bevel of welding pipe fittings construction .
    • ASME B16.28, Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
    Industrial Processes: Bending, squeezing, pressing, forging, machining and more ANSI/ASME B16.25, Buttwelding Ends
    ANSI/ASME B16.25 Standard covers the preparation of butt welding ends of piping components to be joined into a piping system by welding.

    Application of pipe elbows:

    Petroleum, chemical, power, gas, metallurgy, shipbuilding, construction, etc.

    ELL & ELLS

    • A wing of a building at right angles to the main structure.
    • A right-angled bend in a pipe or conduit; an elbow.

    Elbows are design features as below

    A 90 degree elbow is also called a “90 bend” or “90 ell”. It is a fitting which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow in the pipe. It used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a “quarter bend”.

    A 90 degree elbow attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead. It can also attach to rubber with stainless steel clamps. It is available in many materials like silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, etc. The main application of an elbow (90 degree) is to connect hoses to valves, water pressure pumps, and deck drains. These elbows can be made from tough nylon material or NPT thread.

    A 45 degree elbow is also called a “45 bend” or “45 ell”. It is commonly used in water supply facilities, food industrial pipeline networks, chemical industrial pipeline networks, electronic industrial pipeline networks, air conditioning facility pipeline, agriculture and garden production transporting system, pipeline network for solar energy facility, etc.

    Elbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which they change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the "center to face" distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent.

    Here below, for example, you will find the center to face distance of NPS 2 elbows (the A distance on the image)


    3D elbows as an example, are calculated with: 3(D) x 2(NPS) x 25.4
    • 90°-LR : = 1½ x 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=76.2 mm
    • 180°-LR : = 2 times the 90° LR elbow A=152.4 mm
    • 90°-SR : = 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=50.8 mm
    • 180°-SR : = 2 times the 90° SR elbow A=101.6 mm

    The center to face distance for a "long" radius elbow, abbreviated LR always is "1½ x Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) (1½D)", while the center to face distance for a "short" radius elbow, abbreviated SR even is to nominal pipe size.

    Elbow Size
    Nominal pipe size Outside Diameter 
    at Bevel 
    Center to End Center to Center Back to Faces
    45° Elbows 90°Elbows 180°Return
    H
            F
           P
           K

    DN

    INCH

    Series A Series B LR LR SR LR
    SR
    LR
    SR
    15
    1/2
    21.3
    18
    16
    38
    -
    76
    -
    48
    -
    20
    3/4
    26.9
    25
    16
    38
    -
    76
    -
    51
    -
    25
    1
    33.7
    32
    16
    38
    25
    76
    51
    56
    41
    32
    11/4
    42.4
    38
    20
    48
    32
    95
    64
    70
    52
    40
    11/2
    48.3
    45
    24
    57
    38
    114
    76
    83
    62
    50
    2
    60.3
    57
    32
    76
    51
    152
    102
    106
    81
    65
    21/2
    76.1(73)
    76
    40
    95
    64
    191
    127
    132
    100
    80
    3
    88.9
    89
    47
    114
    76
    229
    152
    159
    121
    90
    31/2
    101.6
    -
    55
    133
    89
    267
    178
    184
    140
    100
    4
    114.3
    108
    63
    152
    102
    305
    203
    210
    159
    125
    5
    139.7
    133
    79
    190
    127
    381
    254
    262
    197
    150
    6
    168.3
    159
    95
    229
    152
    457
    305
    313
    237
    200
    8
    219.1
    219
    126
    305
    203
    610
    406
    414
    313
    250
    10
    273.0
    273
    158
    381
    254
    762
    508
    518
    391
    300
    12
    323.9
    325
    189
    457
    305
    914
    610
    619
    467
    350
    14
    355.6
    377
    221
    533
    356
    1067
    711
    711
    533
    400
    16
    406.4
    426
    253
    610
    406
    1219
    813
    813
    610
    450
    18
    457.2
    478
    284
    686
    457
    1372
    914
    914
    686
    500
    20
    508.0
    529
    316
    762
    508
    1524
    1016
    1016
    762
    550
    22
    559
    -
    347
    838
    559
    600
    24
    610
    630
    379
    914
    610
    650
    26
    660
    -
    410
    991
    660
    700
    28
    711
    720
    442
    1067
    711
    750
    30
    762
    -
    473
    1143
    762
    800
    32
    813
    820
    505
    1219
    813
    850
    34
    864
    -
    537
    1295
    864
    900
    36
    914
    920
    568
    1372
    914
    950
    38
    965
    -
    600
    1448
    965
    1000
    40
    1016
    1020
    631
    1524
    1016
    1050
    42
    1067
    -
    663
    1600
    1067
    1100
    44
    1118
    1120
    694
    1676
    1118
    1150
    46
    1168
    -
    726
    1753
    1168
    1200
    48
    1220
    1220
    758
    1829
    1219



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