Forged steel

forged steel fittings

Forged steel is an alloy of carbon and iron that is compressed under extreme pressure to make a very hard and strong substance. It has been used for thousands of years to create all types of materials. Modern forged steel is conducted using specialized machines or hydraulic hammers. There are many things to take into consideration when understanding the benefits of forged steel.

Forging refers to the use of forging machinery for metal blank, make its produce plastic deformation in order to obtain certain mechanical properties, a certain shape and size of forgings machining method. One of the two part of the forging. By forging can eliminate the as-cast loose metal, welded holes, generally is superior to the same material of the casting on the mechanical properties of the forgings.

Machinery load is high, the important part is tough working conditions, in addition to relatively simple shapes are available rolled plates, profiles or welded parts, the multi-use forgings.

Steel forging can be classified into three categories depending upon the forming temperature:

(1.) HOT FORGING OF STEEL

The forging temperature is between 950 and 1250 degree Celsius, above the recrystallization temperature. It results in good formability and requires low forming forces.

(2.) WARM FORGING OF STEEL

The forging temperature is between 750 and 950 degrees Celsius. It leads to limited formability and requires higher forming forces than for hot forging.

(3.) COLD FORGING OF STEEL

The forging temperature is at room condition, self-heating up to 150 degrees Celsius due to the forming energy. It results in low formability and needs high forming forces.

Significance

The bonus of forged steel is that the metal becomes stronger than equivalent types that are cast or machined. The pressure that compresses the steel makes the grains within the steel deform as they are forced together.

Types

There are three basic types of forged steel. Drawn out steel increases the length of the alloy, while decreasing the width. Upset steel is the opposite, the length is decreased, while the width is increased. Squeezed-in steel uses closed dies that produces flow in all directions and compacts the steel into a solid shape.

Benefits

Forged steel is used in a variety of industries. Everything from manufacturing to pharmaceuticals utilize the benefits of forged steel. Anything that can be made of metal can generally be made stronger and more weight-conscious by forged steel.

Properties of Forged Steel

Forged steel is often used in weapons, thanks to its strength and durability.

Forging steel is a metal-working process which involves the use of hammering or pressing techniques to alter the steel’s shape, followed by heat treatment. This method produces in the steel a number of properties which distinguish it from other treatments of this metal, for example casting, where liquid metal is poured into a mold and then left to solidify.

Strong and Durable

Steel forgings have a generally higher strength and are typically tougher than steel processed in other fashions. The steel is less likely to shatter on contact with other objects for example, making forged steel highly suitable for items such as swords. This increased strength and durability is a result of the way in which the steel is forced into shape — by pressing or by hammering — during the forging process. The steel’s grain is stretched by this process, and ends up aligned in one direction, as opposed to being random. Following the pressing or hammering, the forging is cooled in water or oil. By the end of the process, the steel is stronger than it would have been had it been cast, for example.

Anisotropic

A steel forging’s strength isn’t consistent all the way through; instead, steel forgings are anisotropic, which means when the metal is worked on and deformation occurs, the steel’s strength is greatest in the direction of the resulting grain flow. This results in steel forgings which are strongest along their longitudinal axis, while in other directions, the forging will be weaker. This differs from steel castings, which are isotropic and therefore have almost identical properties in all directions.

Consistency Between Forgings

Since the process of forging is controlled and deliberate, with each forging undergoing the same steps, it’s typically possible to ensure a consistent material over the course of many different forgings. This is in contrast to cast steel, which is more random in nature due to the processes used.

Limit On Size

During the forging process, it’s more difficult to shape the metal, since forging occurs while the steel is still solid, unlike in casting where the metal has been reduced to its liquid form as part of the process. Since the metallurgist working with the steel will have more difficulty altering the metal’s shape, there’s a limit on the size and the thickness of the steel which can be successfully forged. The larger the metal section being worked on, the harder it is to forge.

Forged steel flanges
Carbon steel Forged flanges

Forged steel flanges made of carbon steel or stainless steel, the materials conform to the JIS, ASTM A182,A105, DIN17100 ST-2 and BS standard.

Forged steel is the use of a variety of forging material produced and forgings, forgings castings higher quality than can withstand large impact force, effect, ductility, toughness and other aspects of mechanical properties are better than steel castings high, so whatever some important machine parts should be used forgings.

What is steel forging

The characteristics of forged steel such as strength and resistance benefit every industry from automotive to agricultural machinery and manufacturing.

Steel forgings serve as pipe fittings in the oil and gas industry whereas as pulleys and gear wheels in the automotive industry.

The aircraft industry benefits from the strength of forged steel in their fasteners and airframe members.

The Difference Between Casting & Forging

Casting is the process where metal is heated until molten. While in the molten or liquid state it is poured into a mold or vessel to create a desired shape.

Forging is the application of thermal and mechanical energy to steel billets or ingots to cause the material to change shape while in a solid state.

Why use castings?

The applications of forged steel

We use castings for a wide range of wearparts and components that are too large, complicated, intricate or otherwise unsuitable for the forging process. We can forge parts up to 50kgs but the sheer energy required to forge larger items make casting a much more viable alternative.

We currently cast mining and earthmoving components to 580 kg. We can cast up to 3000 kg if required. Manganese work hardening screens are one of our specialities. We have found that by carefully choosing alloys and applying proven methods of heat treatment, we can produce castings of high quality, strength and wearability. The casting process better lends itself to making parts where internal cavities are required.

The advantages of casting include:

  • No real upper size limit in casting weight
  • Large range of alloy choices

As forgings remain solid, custom alloys are far more difficult to get into production whereas with casting, alloys including Chrome, Nickel and Moly can be added at the molten stage.

  • Tooling is often less expensive than forge dies
  • Smaller production “runs” required
  • Complicated/complex parts are no problem
  • For general GET as well as large and complex components - casting is a fantastic method of manufacture.

Why use forgings?

Forging offers uniformity of composition and structure. Forging results in metallurgical recrystalisation and grain
refinement as a result of the thermal cycle and deformation process. This strengthens the resulting steel product particularly in terms of impact and shear strength.

Forged steel is generally stronger and more reliable than castings and plate steel due to the fact that the grain flows of the steel are altered, conforming to the shape of the part.

The advantages of forging include:

  • Generally tougher than alternatives
  • Will handle impact better than castings
  • The nature of forging excludes the occurence of porosity, shrinkage, cavities and cold pour issues.

The tight grain structure of forgings making it mechanically strong. There is less need for expensive alloys to attain high strength components.

The tight grain structure offers great wear resistance without the need to make products “superhard” We have found that, on a blank HRC 38-42 forged grinder insert wear/wash is about the same as a high alloy HRC 46-50 cast grinder insert. The difference being a HRC 46-50 casting does not have the ductility to handle high impact grinding.




SUNNY STEEL

Our team are highly trained and experienced in servicing and producing all types of steel supplies. Whether you've got a large construction project, or need parts for industrial machinery, our team of steel fabrication consultants will ensure that your project is provided with the parts you need, when you need them.

Link exchange

Copyright © 2011 Sunny Steel Enterprise Ltd.  All Rights Reserved ICP No.:08010763