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ASTM A312 stainless steel

What is stainless steel?

This crystal structure makes such steels non-magnetic and less brittle at low temperatures. For higher hardness and strength, carbon is added. When subjected to adequate heat treatment these steels are used as razor blades, cutlery, tools etc.

Significant quantities of manganese have been used in many stainless steel compositions. Manganese preserves an austenitic structure in the steel as does nickel, but at a lower cost.

The AISI defines the following ASTM A312 grades among others:

Also known as "marine grade" stainless steel due to its increased ability to resist saltwater corrosion compared to type 304. SS316 is often used for building nuclear reprocessing plants.

304/304L Stainless Steel

Type 304 has slightly lower strength than 302 due to its lower carbon content.

Chemical Composition - Stainless Steel 304/304L
Element Percentage by Weight Maximum Unless Range is Specified
304 304L 304H
Carbon 0.08 0.030 0.04-0.10
Manganese 2.00 2.00 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045 0.045 0.045
Sulfur 0.030 0.030 0.030
Silicon 0.75 0.75 0.75
Chromium 18.00
20.00
18.00
20.00
18.00
20.00
Nickel 8.0
10.50
8.0
12.00
8.0
10.5
Nitrogen 0.10 0.10 0.10
304 Resistance To Corrosion
Grade 317 317L
UNS Designation S31700 S31703
Carbon (C) Max. 0.08 0.035*
Manganese (Mn) Max. 2.00 2.00
Phosphorous (P) Max. 0.040 0.04
Sulphur (S) Max. 0.03 0.03
Silicon (Si) Max. 1.00 1.00
Chromium (Cr) 18.0–20.0 18.0–20.0
Nickel (Ni) 11.0–14.0 11.0–15.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 3.0–4.0 3.0–4.0
Nitrogen (N)
Iron (Fe) Bal. Bal.
Other Elements

*Maximum carbon content of 0.04% acceptable for drawn tubes

Typical Mechanical Properties-Stainless Steel 304/304L
Grade Tensile Strength Rm N/mm²
Yield Strength Rp 0.2, N/mm² Elongation (%)
304 Annealed 500-700 195 40
304L Annealed 460-680 180 40

316/316L Stainless Steel

Type 316/316L Stainless Steel is a molybdenum steel possessing improved resistance to pitting by solutions containing chlorides and other halides.

Chemcial Composition - 316/316L stainless steel tubing and pipe
Grade 316 316L
UNS Designation S31600 S31603
Carbon (C) Max. 0.08 0.030*
Manganese (Mn) Max. 2.00 2.00
Phosphorous (P) Max. 0.045 0.045
Sulphur (S) Max. 0.030 0.030
Silicon (Si) Max. 1.00 1.00
Chromium (Cr) 16.0 – 18.0 16.0 – 18.0
Nickel (Ni) 10.0 – 14.0 10.0 – 14.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.0 – 3.0 2.0 – 3.0
Nitrogen (N)
Iron (Fe) Bal. Bal.
Other Elements
Typical Mechanical Properties- Stainless Steel 316/316L
Material Form Tensile Strength (ksi) Yield Strength (ksi)
% Elongation Hardness HB
Alloy 316L 316L Sheet AMS 5507 100 max - 45

-

Alloy 316 316 Sheet AMS 5524 75 min 30 45 207 max
Physical Properties - 316/316L/316H stainless steel in the Annealed Condition at -20°F to +100°F
Alloy UNS Design
-ation
Spec. Tensile Strength
psi MPa ksi
316 S31600 A249, A312 75,000 515 75
316L S31603 A270, A312 70,000 485 70
316H S31609
Yield Strength
Alloy psi MPa ksi Elongation in 2 inches (min.) % Grain Size Req. Max. Hardness Modulus of Elasticity (x106 psi) Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (IN./IN./°F x 10-6) Thermal
Conductivity
(BTU-in/ft2-h-°F)
316 30,000 205 30 35 90 Rb 28.0 9.2 116
316L 25,000 170 25 90 Rb 28.0 9.2 116
316H 7 or coarser

310S Stainless Steel

310S Stainless Steel has excellent resistance to oxidation under constant temperatures to 2000°F.

Specifications - Stainless Steel 310S
  • ASTM: A312, A403, A182
  • ASME: SA312, SA403, SA182
Chemical Composition - Stainless Steel 310S
C Cr Mn Mo Ni P S Si
Max    Max Max     Max Max Max
0.08% 24% - 26% 2.0% 0.75% 19% - 22% 0.045% 0.03% 0.75%
Typical Mechanical Properties- Stainless Steel 310S
Alloy Ultimate Tensile Strength (ksi) Yield Strength (ksi)
Elongation % Reduction of Area (%) Hardness HRB
Type 310
Sheet (Sol Trtd)
AMS 5521
75-100 30 40 - 95 max
Type 310 
Bar (Sol Trtd)
AMS 5651
- - - - 187 max

317L Stainless Steel

317L is a molybdenum bearing austenitic chromium nickel steel similar to type 316, except the alloy content in 317L is somewhat higher.

Specifications - Stainless Steel 317L
  • ASTM: A312, A403, A182
  • ASME: SA312, SA403, SA182
Chemical Composition - Stainless Steel 317/317L
Grade 317 317L
UNS Designation S31700 S31703
Carbon (C) Max. 0.08 0.035*
Manganese (Mn) Max. 2.00 2.00
Phosphorous (P) Max. 0.040 0.04
Sulphur (S) Max. 0.03 0.03
Silicon (Si) Max. 1.00 1.00
Chromium (Cr) 18.0–20.0 18.0–20.0
Nickel (Ni) 11.0–14.0 11.0–15.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 3.0–4.0 3.0–4.0
Nitrogen (N)
Iron (Fe) Bal. Bal.
Other Elements
Typical Mechanical Properties- Stainless Steel 317L
Material Ultimate Tensile Strength (Mpa) 0.2 % Yield Strength (Mpa)
% Elongation in 2" Rockwell B Hardness
Alloy 317 515 205 35 95
Alloy 317L 515 205 40 95
Minimum Mechanical Properties by ASTM A240 and ASME SA 240
321/321H Stainless Steel

Type 321 is basic type 304 modified by adding titanium in an amount at least 5 times the carbon plus nitrogen contents.

Specifications -321/321H Stainless Steel
  • ASTM:A312, A403, A182
  • ASME: SA312, SA403, SA182
Chemical Composition - 321/321H Stainless steel
Grade 321 321H
UNS Designation S210000 S32109
Carbon (C) Max. 0.08 0.04 – 0.10
Manganese (Mn) Max. 2.00 2.00
Phosphorous (P) Max. 0.040 0.040
Sulphur (S) Max. 0.030 0.030
Silicon (Si) Max. 0.75 0.75
Chromium (Cr) 17.0 – 20.0 17.0 – 20..0
Nickel (Ni) 9.0 – 12.0 9.0 – 12.0
Molybdenum (Mo)
Nitrogen (N) 0.1 Max. 0.1 Max.
Iron (Fe) Bal. Bal.
Other Elements Ti=5(C) to 0.70% Ti=5(C) to 0.60%

*The titanium content shall not be less than 5 times the carbon content and not more than 0.60%.  321H requires the titanium content to be not less than 4 times the carbon content and not more than 0.60%.

Typical Mechanical Properties
Material Tensile Strength Rm, N/mm² Yield Strength Rp 0.2, N/mm²
% Elongation
Alloy 321 Tube
500-730 200 35

410 Stainless Steel

Type 410 is a martensitic stainless steel which is magnetic, resists corrosion in mild environents and has fairly good ductility.

Specifications - Stainless Steel 410
  • ASTM: A268, A815, A182
Chemical Composition - Stainless Steel 410
C Cr Mn Ni P S Si
Max    Max    Max Max Max
0.15% 11.5% - 13.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.04% 0.03% 0.75%

Duplex 2205 (UNS S31803)

Duplex 2205 (UNS S31803), or Avesta Sheffield 2205 is a ferritic-austenitic stainless steel.

Specifications - Duplex 2205
  • ASTM: A790, A815, A182
  • ASME: SA790, SA815, SA182
Chemical Composition - Duplex 2205 
C Cr Fe Mn Mo N Ni P S Si
Max        Max          Max Max Max
.03% 22%-23% BAL 2.0% 3.0% -3.5% .14% - .2% 4.5%-6.5% .03% .02% 1%
Stainless steels are also classified by their crystalline structure:
  • Austenitic stainless steels comprise over 70% of total stainless steel production. They contain a maximum of 0.15% carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium and sufficient nickel and/or manganese to retain an austenitic structure at all temperatures from the cryogenic region to the melting point of the alloy. A typical composition is 18% chromium and 10% nickel, commonly known as 18/10 stainless is often used in flatware. Similarly 18/0 and 18/8 is also available. ¨Superaustenitic〃 stainless steels, such as alloy AL-6XN and 254SMO, exhibit great resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion due to high Molybdenum contents (>6%) and nitrogen additions and the higher nickel content ensures better resistance to stress-corrosion cracking over the 300 series. The higher alloy content of "Superaustenitic" steels means they are fearsomely expensive and similar performance can usually be achieved using duplex steels at much lower cost.
  • Ferritic stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, but far lessdurable than austenitic grades and cannot be hardened by heat treatment. They contain between 10.5% and 27% chromium and very little nickel, if any. Most compositions include molybdenum; some, aluminium or titanium. Common ferritic grades include 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, and 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni.
  • Martensitic stainless steels are not as corrosion resistant as the other two classes, but are extremely strong and tough as well as highly machineable, and can be hardened by heat treatment. Martensitic stainless steel contains chromium (12-14%), molybdenum (0.2-1%), no nickel, and about 0.1-1% carbon (giving it more hardness but making the material a bit more brittle). It is quenched and magnetic. It is also known as "series-00" steel.
  • Duplex stainless steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, the aim being to produce a 50:50 mix although in commercial alloys the mix may be 60:40. Duplex steel have improved strength over austenitic stainless steels and also improved resistance to localised corrosion particularly pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. They are characterised by high chromium and lower nickel contents than austenitic stainless steels.
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